Ubuhunzi bwa Yesu na Mariya, Inyanja Itukura, Pyramides, Uruzi rwa Nile… mu mafoto n’amavideo

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    Misiri ni igihugu gisigasira amateka yacyo cyane, ku buryo n'amarimbi y'Abafarawo babayeho mu myaka isaga ibihumbi 4 akibungwabungwa cyane. Ifoto y'iburyo ni irimbi rishyinguyemo Farawo Khephren, iyo hejuru iburyo ni mu Mujyi wa Cairo, iyo munsi yayo ni umwanditsi w'iyi nkuru mu Nyanja Itukura, mu Kuboza 2016.

    Abaswayire baravuga ngo ‘tembea uone,’ bisobanuye kimwe na ‘akanyoni katagurutse ntikamenya iyo bweze’. Iminsi 23 yashize ntari mu Rwanda umwaka ushize yatumye menya byinshi nifuza kubasangiza.

    Harimo ibyo nizera ko buri Mukilisitu yasomye cyangwa yasomewe muri Bibiliya bijyanye n’ubuhunzi bwa Mariya na Yozefu n’Umwana wabo Yesu Kilisitu, n’Inyanja Itukura Abanya-Isiraheli bambutse basubira i Kanani bakurikiwe n’Ingabo za Farawo.

    Muri iyi nkuru y’amafoto n’amashusho (videos) ndakwereka imihanda ica munsi y’ubutaka muri Cairo, nanakwereke Uruzi rwa Nile rwambukiranya rwagati mu Mujyi wa Cairo. Rufatwa nk’ibihaha bya Misiri kuko rutariho byayigora guhumeka. Ni igihugu cy’ubutayu.

    Nahagurutse mu Rwanda tariki 23 Ugushyingo, ndugarukamo tariki 16 Ukuboza. Nagiyeyo mu rwego rw’amahugurwa y’itangazamakuru yateguwe n’Ishyirahamwe Nyafurika ry’Abanyamakuru ku bufatanye na Guverinoma ya Misiri. Banatujyanye ahitwa Giza, ahari ibituro by’Abafarawo bizwi nka Pyramides, byubatswe mu myaka ibihumbi hafi 5 ishize.

    Abize ubumenyi bw’Isi nizera ko bamwe bize na Canal de Suez. Ni inzira nkorano ihuza amazi y’Inyanja ya Mer Mediterranée n’ay’Inyanja itukura. Canal ya mbere yuzuye mu mwaka wa 1969; ejo bundi Abanyamisiri bujuje canal ya kabiri ishamikiye ku ya mbere.

    Hari kandi Umujyi wa Alexandria uri mu nkengero z’Inyanja ya Mediteranée wubatswe n’Umugereki Alexander the Great mu kinyajana cya 4 mbere y’Ivuka rya Yesu, na wo barawudutembereje, ngenda mfata amafoto n’amashusho.

    Ntarajya mu Misiri, sinari nzi ko iki gihugu gihuriweho n’imigabane ibiri: Afurika na Aziya. Ibihugu nari nsanzwe nzi bibarwa ku migabane irenze umwe ni Turukiya, u Burusiya na Khazakhstan. Buri kimwe gifite ubutaka bubarizwa muri Aziya n’ububarirwa mu Burayi. Umujyi wa Istanbul wo muri Turukiya, na wo ufite ubutaka bumwe buri muri Aziya n’uburi mu Burayi.

    Misiri na yo ibarizwa muri ibi bihugu bisangiwe n’imigabane itandukanye. Intara 2 muri 27 zigize Misiri zibarizwa mu Mwigimbakirwa wa Sinai (Sinai Peninsula) ubarizwa ku butaka bwa Aziya.

    Sinai ni ubutayu bufite ubuso bwa kilometero kare ibihumbi 60, bugizwe n’intara ebyiri (North Sinai Governorate na South Sinai Governorate), ukaba utuwe n’abaturage miliyoni imwe n’ibihumbi 400.

    Bisobanuye ko Abanyamisiri babarirwa muri miliyoni n’ibihumbi 400 batuye muri Sinai babarwa nk’abaturage ba Aziya. Ubusanzwe Misiri yose ituwe n’abaturage miliyoni 94, ikaba ifite ubuso bwa kilometero kare 1.001.450.

    Old Cairo, aho Yesu na Mariya babaga

    Umubare munini w’Abanyamisiri ni Abasilamu. Abakilisitu babarirwa hagati ya 10% na 15% bya miliyoni 94 zituye igihugu cyose. Benshi muri abo bakilisitu ni abo mu Itorero ry’aba Coptes b’Aba-Orthodoxes (Coptic Orthodox Church).

    Minisiteri y’Imenyekanishamakuru muri Misiri isobanura ko Old Cairo, ahaherereye ingoro ndangamateka y’abakilisitu, isurwa cyane n’abakerarugendo kubera ibintu birimo kuba ari igicumbi cy’amateka ya Bikira Mariya na Yesu, dore ko ngo bahungiye mu Misiri bakahamara imyaka ine.

    Mu Ivanjili ya Matayo ni ho hagaragara iby’ihunga rya Mariya na Yozefu n’Umwana wabo Yesu. Handitse ko bahunze Yesu akiri uruhinja nyuma y’aho Umwami wa Yudaya witwaga Herode yari yatanze itegeko ryo kwica impinja. Ngo yari yahanuriwe ko hari umwana wavutse ushobora kuzamukura ku ngoma.

    Ubwo twasuraga ahabitse amateka y’uyu muryango, twatemberejwe mu nzu ndangamateka y’abakilisitu (Coptic Museum) yubatswe mu 1908 na Marcus Simaika wayoboraga Itorero ry’Abacopte mu Misiri icyo gihe. Muri iyi nyubako ni ho haherereye amateka ya Yesu, nyina, Mose n’andi atandukanye. Andi mateka agaragara mu rusengero rwa Abu Serga ruri hafi yayo ari na rwo rurimo iriba uyu muryango wavomagaho.

    Aha ni mu rusengero rw’aba-Orthodoxes b’aba-coptes (Coptic Orthodox Church), itorero ry’abakilisitu rishingira imyizerere ku Ntumwa Mariko wanditse imwe mu mavanjili avugwa muri Bibiliya
    Iyi nzobere mu mateka ya Misiri (Egyptologue) yarimo isobanurira abanyamakuru uko Ubukilisitu bwageze mu Misiri.
    Asobanura ko Ubukilisitu mu Misiri bwatangiranye n’ubuhunzi bwa Yesu na Mariya na Yozefu muri iki gihugu
    Amwe mu mateka ya Yesu na Mariya abitse muri cave y’uru rusengero ku buryo kuyageraho bisaba kunyura muri iyi nzira

    Iyo umaze kumanuka hariya hantu, usa n’uzamuka gato ukagera ku iriba ry’amazi Bikira Mariya, Yesu na Yozefu banywaga
    Mutagatifu Mariko ushingirwaho imyememere n’Itorero ry’aba Orthodoxe bo mu Misiri, yageze muri iki gihugu mu mwaka wa 60 nyuma y’Ivuka rya Yesu

    Iyi ni yo miterere y’urusengero rubitse amwe mu mateka y’Ubukilitu mu Misiri. Ruri iruhande rw’ingoro Ndangamateka y’aba-coptes ndetse n’Urusengero rwubatswe hejuru y’Umunara w’Abaromani rwitiriwe Bikira Mariya, ruzwi nka Hanging Church.

    Mutagatifu Serguis na Mutagatifu Bacchus bahowe Imana mu kinyejana cya Gatatu
    Uru rusengero ruzwi nka Abu Serga, rwitiriwe Mutagatifu Sergius na Bacchus

    Abaturage baturutse mu Majyepfo y’Uburasirazuba bwa Aziya, twahahuriye na bo baje kwiga amateka y’ubukilisitu mu Misiri
    Uyu ni uwarimo abasobanurira areba ku ikarita

    Mu ma corridor yiyi nyubako uhasanga abantu bacuruza imitako yiganjemo iya Yesu na Mariya
    Aha ni mu Ngoro Ndangamateka y’aba-Orthodoxes, ibangikanye na ruriya rusengero

    Muri Old Cairo ni na ho haherereye umusigiti wubatswe mbere muri Afurika (muri 641–642 nyuma ya Yesu), ubwo Abarabu bageraga muri iki gihugu baturutse muri Arabie Soudite, bagatangiza idini ya Islam muri iki gihugu cyari kimaze ibinyejana bibarirwa muri birindwi mu maboko y’Abaromani. Uwo musigiti witiriwe Amr ibn al-As, Umwarabu wayoboye ingabo zakubise incuro Abaromani zikigarurira Misiri.

    Muri Old Cairo hanazwi nk’igice kibarizwamo imirwa mikuru ya misiri yabanjirije Cairo nka Fustat, al-Askar na al-Qatta’i, iyi ikaba indi mpamvu ituma hasurwa cyane.

    Uruzi rwa Nile

    Uru ruzi mpuzamahanga rugizwe n’amazi aturuka mu bice bitandukanye bya Afurika arimo n’aturuka mu Rwanda. Ruragenda rukanyura rwagati mu Mujyi wa Cairo rugakomeza rukiroha mu Nyanja ya Meditarenée. Ni uruzi rufatiye runini iki gihugu kuko iyo ruza kuba rutakinyuzemo cyari kuba ubutayu.

    Uruzi rwa Nile rurerure ku Isi, runyura rwagati mu Mujyi wa Cairo. Munsi yarwo hanyuramo umuhanda wambukiranya uzwi nka metro

    Kuva aho Nile yinjirira mu Misiri ivuye muri Sudan, kugeza aho yirohera mu Nyanja ya Mediteranée, harimo ibirometero bibarirwa mu 1600. Abanyamisiri hafi ya bose batuye mu bice bikijije uru ruzi (Nile Valley) kuko ari byo birimo amazi.

    93.5% by’ubuso bwa Misiri ni ubutayu, aho usanga abaturage batuye batatanye cyane. Benshi bajya gutura no gukorera muri Nile Valley iri kuri 6.5% gusa by’ubuso bw’igihugu kuko ari ho honyine umuntu ashobora guhinga.

    93.5% by’ubuso bwa Misiri ni ubutayu. Muri ubwo butayu hatuyemo abaturage bake cyane batatanye.
    Aha ni mu butayu ku muhanda uva Cairo ujya ahitwa Ain Sokhna, ku Nyanja Itukura

    Igitangaje ni uko kuba 93.5% by’ubuso bwa Misiri ari ubutayu bitayibuza kuba igihugu cya gatatu gituwe cyane muri Afurika, nyuma ya Nigeria na Ethiopia. Iza ku mwanya wa 15 ku rwego rw’Isi.

    Misiri ituwe n’abaturage babarirwa muri miliyoni 94. Benshi muri bo (miliyoni 39) batuye mu gice kizwi nka Nile Delta, gihereye mu birometero 20 uvuye i Cairo ugakomeza mu Majyaruguru kugera ku Nyanja ya Mediteranée.

    Nile Delta ihuriyemo ibice byera cyane bikikije Nile mbere y’uko yiroha mu Nyanja ya Mediteranée, ikaba iri ku buso bwa kilometero kare ibihumbi 22. Nile Delta ni yo usangamo imijyi nka Alexandria, Port Said n’indi.

    Ibikorwa by’iterambere birimo ubuhinzi bikorerwa mu bice bikikije Nile (Nile Valley) bibeshejeho 99% by’abaturage batuye igihugu cyose. Nubwo 93.5% by’ubuso bwa Misiri ari ubutayu, iki gihugu ni icya gatanu ku Isi mu kohereza mu mahanga imbuto n’imboga.

    Uva Cairo ujya Alexandria, iruhande rw’umuhanda ubona imirima ihinzemo imboga n’imbuto

    Amazi ya Nile agenda ayoborwa mu bice biyituriye agakoreshwa mu buhinzi mu byo bita irrigation mu Cyongereza.

    Mu rwego rwo kwiteganyiriza mu gihe amazi ya Nile yaramuka abaye make kubera kutagwa kw’imvura mu bice Nile iturukamo, ndetse no guhangana n’imyuzure yaterwaga n’ubwinshi bw’amazi yayo, Abanyamisiri bubatse ikidamu kinini kizwi nka Aswan High Dam, kibikwamo amwe mu mazi ya Nile akoreshwa cyane cyane mu buhinzi no mu kubyaza ingufu z’amashanyarazi. Giherereye mu Mujyi wa Aswan, kikaba cyarubatswe kuva mu mwaka wa 1960-1970. Kuva cyamara kubakwa, nta myuzure yongeye kuba.

    Abanyamisiri banafite ikiyaga cy’igikorano (artificial lake) cyitwa Nasser; na cyo cyakozwe hagamijwe kwizigamira amazi ya Nile. Ubundi ni ikiyaga kimwe gifatanye gisangiwe na Misiri na Sudan, ariko Abanyasudan bo igice cyabo (17% by’ubuso bw’ikiyaga cyose) bakunda kucyita Nubian Lake aho kuba Nasser Lake.

    Hari impungenge ko mu gihe kiri imbere Misiri ishobora kudakomeza kubona amazi yifuzaga kuko Ethiopia irimo kubaka kuri Nile ikidamu kinini (Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam) kizubakwaho urugomero rw’amashanyarazi. Biteganyijwe ko urwo rugomero nirwuzura ruzaba ari rwo runini muri Afurika, rukaba urwa 11 ku Isi. Icyo kidamu cya Ethiopia gifite metero kibe miliyari 79, bikaba biteganyijwe ko nikimara kubakwa, kizatwara imyaka iri hagati ya 5 na 15 ngo cyuzuremo amazi. Iki kidamu kirimo kubakwa kuri Blue Nile, uyu akaba ari umugezi mugari uva mu kiyaga cya Tana cyo muri Ethiopia. 59% by’amazi ya Nile iyakesha Blue Nile. Iyubakwa ry’iki kidamu ryateye amakimbirane hagati ya Misiri na Ethiopia.

    Mu Ruzi rwa Nile mu Misiri usangamo amato menshi, arimo n’amanini akorerwamo inama zikomeye, atari amato agenewe gutwara abagenzi ahubwo ari amato abantu bajyamo bagakoreramo nk’inama cyangwa bakidagaduriramo. Muri yo twavuga nka Nile Maxime. Hari n’inyubako nini usanga zireremba ku mazi zirimo utubyiniro n’amaresitora na zo zikoreshwa mu kwinezeza, nka Al Saraya ifite amaresitora ane, ni nini ku buryo wagira ngo ni hoteli.

    Iyi nyubako ya Al Saraya irimo amaresitora ane

    Cairo, kimwe no mu bindi bice bitandukanye bya Misiri, abantu bavuga Icyongereza ni mbarwa nubwo iki gihugu cyakolonijwe n’Abongereza. Ibyapa hafi ya byose byanditse mu Cyarabu ku buryo umunyamahanga utazi Icyarabu adashobora kwitembereza mu mujyi. Ku muntu utazi Icyarabu ushobora no kujya mu iduka ugataha udahashye. Nkihagera hari amasoko najyagamo bikaba ngombwa kwifashisha calculatrice cyangwa telefone mu kuganira ku biciro kuko rimwe na rimwe nasangaga mu ndimi enye mvuga nta na rumwe bumva, nanjye nkaba ntazi Icyarabu.

    “Icyarabu ni rwo rurimi rwacu, ruvugwa mu gihugu hose, ntabwo twitaye ku rurimi rw’umukoloni kuko yaje asanga hari ururimi ruduhuje nk’Abarabu twese, bitandukanye no mu bihugu bibamo amoko menshi aho usanga buri bwoko bufite ururimi rwabwo, noneho bose bagakunda ururimi rw’umukoloni ngo babashe kumvikana, aha rero abavuga Icyongereza n’Igifaransa barahari ariko ni abize cyane, ndetse hari n’ababyiga cyane ariko yataha agasanga mu rugo baravuga Icyarabu, bikarangira atamenye n’icyo Cyongereza kandi yarize kaminuza,” uku ni ko umuganga twahuriye mu Isoko rya Roksy, yambwiye.

    Inyanja itukura ntitukura!

    Natekerezaga ko Inyanja Itukura yifitemo akantu ko gutukura, nyigezeho mbona amazi yayo ari nk’andi asanzwe! Abanyamisiri badutemberezaga ntibabashaga gusobanura aho iryo zina ryavuye.

    Inyanja Itukura iri hagati ya Afurika na Aziya. Abakilisitu bizera ko Abanyaisiraheli bayobowe na Mose bayambutse bahunga ingabo za Misiri, nyuma y’imyaka bakoreshwa uburetwa muri icyo gihugu.

    Aha ni mu nkengero z’inyanja Irukura, aho abantu baza kuruhukira bavuye mu mazi

    Inyanja Itukura ifite ubuso bwa kilometero kare ibihumbi 438, ikagira uburebure bw’ibirometero 2250. Ubugari bwayo bwo bugenda butandukana bitewe n’ahantu, ariko aho ari nini cyane ifite ubugari bw’ibirometero 355. Ihujwe na Mer Mediteranée n’inzira nkorano y’amazi izwi nka Suez Canal cyangwa Canal de Suez mu Gifaransa.

    Iyi nyanja twayisuye kuwa 13 Ukuboza 2013, ku ruhande rw’Umujyi wa Ain Sokhna wo mu Ntara ya Suez. Ni mu birometero 138 uvuye i Cairo.

    “Nari nzi ngo Inyanja itukura iratukura, ariko ndabona idatukura pe!”, uku ni ko mugenzi wanjye twari kumwe wo muri Kenya witwa Luke Awich yavuze, asa n’uwatangaye.

    Moses Haufiku, umunyamakuru wa Namibian Today, yunzemo ati “Natunguwe cyane mu by’ukuri. Nasomaga amateka y’iyi nyanja mu bitabo ariko ubu ndayiboneye. Ndumva nishimiye kumenya byimbitse amateka ya Misiri.”

    Kubera iyi nyanja aha hantu hari ubuhehere, haratuje, ni ahantu heza ho gusohokera

    Nta muntu uzi neza impamvu iyi nyanja yiswe Inyanja Itukura n’uwayise gutyo. Gusa abazobereye mu mateka ya Misiri bavuga ko iryo zina rishobora kuba ryaravuye ku tunyabuzima duto (cyanobacteria) tuzwi nka Trichodesmium tuba mu nkengero z’iyi nyanja, tugatuma rimwe na rimwe amazi yayo ajya gusa umutuku. Gusa biba gake cyane kuko abaturage basanzwe ba Misiri twaganiriye kuri iyi ngingo bose bahurije ku kuvuga ko batarabona aya mazi yatukuye.

    Aha ni rwagati mu Nyanja Itukura, uyu mugabo wari udutwaye yitwa Bishoy

    Hari izindi nzobere mu bumenyi bw’Isi zivuga ko izina ‘Itukura’ (Red) bisobanuye ‘amajyepfo’ nk’uko hari n’Inyanja y’Umukara (Black Sea), aho ‘black’ bisobanuye ‘amajyaruguru’. Ibi babishingira ku kuba amazina y’amabara yarakoreshwaga muri zimwe mu ndimi zo muri Aziya mu gusobanura ibyerekezo by’Isi (cardinal directions).

    Nk’uko bigaragarira amaso, amazi y’inyanja itukura ntabwo atukura

    “Natekerezaga ko aya mazi atukuye ariko nza kwibuka ko amazi atagira ibara atanahumura”, uku ni ko Ndiol Seck, umunyamakuru wo muri Senegal, we, asobanura uko yabonye aya mazi.

    Ikindi kintu ntari nzi kuri iyi nyanja ni ukuntu irimo umunyu mwinshi. Ubwo twajyaga kogamo natunguwe no kumva amazi yayo arimo umunyu w’igisoryo, urusha ubwinshi uwo mu biryo.

    Nyuma yaho naje gukurikirana, menya ko amazi y’iyi nyanja ari yo arimo umunyu mwinshi (the saltiest body of water) ku Isi, kubera ubwinshi bw’umwuka uva mu nyanja (high evaporation) n’ubuke bw’imvura kuko iyi nyanja ikikijwe n’ubutayu.

    Alexandria

    Alexandria ni umujyi wa kabiri mu bunini mu Misiri nyuma ya Cairo, wubatse mu Majyaruguru y’Igihugu ku nkengero z’Inyanja ya Mediteranée. Ni mu birometero 223 uvuye i Cairo.

    80% y’ibicuruzwa bisohoka cyangwa byinjira mu Misiri bica ku cyambu cya Alexandria. Ni na wo mujyi utuwe n’abantu benshi muri iki gihugu nyuma ya Cairo.

    Shoferi arimo anyereka Library ya Alexandria ibumoso bw’umuhanda, inyanja ya Mediteranée iri iburyo bw’umuhanda

    Ni umujyi washinzwe n’umurwanyi w’Umugereki Alexandre le Grand mu kinyejana cya kane mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu. Alexandria yabaye umurwa mukuru wa Misiri mu gihe cy’imyaka ibarirwa mu gihumbi, kuva nyuma gato y’urupfu rwa Alexander the Great (yapfuye muri 323 mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu), kugeza mu kinyejana cya karindwi ubwo Abarabu bigaruriraga Misiri.

    Iyi ni inyanja ya Mediteranée
    Muri Mediteranée habamo amato menshi.

    Alexandria yamenyekanye cyane kubera ibintu bitandukanye birimo Isomero ryayo (Bibliothèque) riri mu masomero ya mbere yabayeho ku Isi, ryubatswe ku ngoma ya Ptolemy I Soter, umujenerali w’Umugereki wasimbuye ku butegetsi Alexander the Great akayobora Misiri kuva mu mwaka wa 323 kugeza muri 283 mbere y’Ivuka rya Yesu.

    Inzu y’Ibitabo (Library) ya Alexandria, imwe mu zubatswe kera ku Isi
    Library ya Alexandrie yagiye ivugururwa, ariko yubatswe kera mu myaka isaga 200 mbere y’Ivuka rya Yesu
    Gari ya Moshi zirakoreshwa cyane mu gutwara abantu n’ibintu mu Misiri. Zitwara abantu babarirwa muri miliyoni 1 n’ibihumbi 400 buri munsi. Aha ni Alexandria.
    Amafarashi na yo arakoreshwa cyane mu bwikorezi mu Misiri

    Amarimbi y’Abafarawo – Pyramides

    Amapyramides ni amarimbi y’abami ba Misiri bitwaga Abafarawo (Pharaohs) bayoboye Misiri (Ancient Egypt) kuva mu myaka isaga ibihumbi bitatu mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu, kugeza ku mu kinyejana cya kane mbere y’Ivuka rya Yesu.

    Abagereki bahiritse abafarawo, bayobora Misiri kugeza ubwo na bo bakubitwaga incuro n’Abaromani mu mwaka wa 30 mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu. Abaromani bayoboye Misiri kugeza ubwo na bo baje kwirukanwa n’Abarabu mu kinyejana cya 7, Minisiteri y’Itangazamakuru ya Misiri ikaba ivuga ko Abakilisitu bo mu Misiri ari bo biyambaje Sultan wa Arabie Soudite ngo abakize itotezwa bakorerwaga n’Abaromani.

    Amapyramides atatu manini kurusha andi aherereye mu Mujyi wa Giza, umwe mu mijyi ikomeye ndetse yubatswe kera mu Misiri. Ayobowe na Pyramide ya Cheops (Khufu) yubatswe mu gihe cy’imyaka 21 (2561-2540). Imirimo yo kuyubaka yatangiwe na Cheops ubwe ariko apfa atarayuzuza, yuzuzwa n’umwana we Khafre (Chephren) wamusimbuye ku ngoma; ndetse na Pyramide y’umwana wa Khafre wamusimbuye ku ngoma witwa Menkaure (Mykerinos). Iby’aya mapyramides nari narabyize muri segonderi, byari byiza kuyabona n’amaso yanjye.

    Pyramide ya Cheops ari na yo nini, yubakishijwe amabuye miliyoni ebyiri n’ibihumbi 300, mu gihe cy’imyaka 21, yubakwa mu myaka 21

    Iruhande rw’aya mapyramides ya Cheops, Khephren na Mykerinos hariho amapyramides atatu y’abagore babo. Mu Misiri muri rusange habarurwa amapyramides 130, buri pyramide ikaba ari irimbi ry’umufarawo umwe.

    Pyramide ya Khephren (ibumoso) n’iy’umuhungu we Mykerinos.

    Igitangaje ni ukuntu aya marimbi ari aya kera ariko n’ubu akaba agikomeye. Aherereye mu birometero bitanu uturutse rwagati mu Mujyi wa Cairo ugana mu Burengerazuba. Ubutayu bwa Sahara bufatiye aho aya marimbi aherereye bugakomeza bukagera ku Nyanja ya Atlantica.

    Pyramide ya Cheops nini kurusha izindi ifite metero 222 z’ubugari, na metero 137,2 z’uburebure. Umubiri wa Cheops uri mu gice cyo munsi y’ubutaka cya pyramide, ari na cyo kinini ugererenyije n’ikigaragara hejuru.

    “Pyramide ya Cheops yubatswe n’abakozi ibihumbi 150 mu myaka 21, yubakishwa amabuye miliyoni 2 n’ibihumbi 300, buri buye ripima hagati ya toni ebyiri na 15” nk’uko bitangazwa na Amr Atef, inzobere mu mateka ya Misiri (egyptologue) yadutemberezaga muri aya mapyramides.

    Iyi nzobere ikora muri Minisiteri y’Itangazamakuru ya Misiri, isobanura ko “pyramide yubatswe mu buryo budasanzwe kugira ngo umubiri wa farawo ubikwe neza, iyo ni yo mpamvu nyamukuru.”

    Amr Atef akomeza avuga ko “pyramides zose zubatswe mu Burengerazuba bwa Nile kuko Abanyamisiri bo mu bihe by’Abafarawo (Ancient Egyptians) bizeraga ko iburasirazuba ari ahantu h’ubuzima kuko ari ho izuba rirasira, iburengerazuba hakaba ah’urupfu kuko ari ho izuba rirengera.”

    Uturutse iburyo: Pyramide ya Cheops, iya Khephren n’iya Mykerinos. Aba Bafarawo bose babayeho mu kinyagihumbi cya gatatu mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu
    Iruhande rw’amapyramides haba hari indogobe, amafarashi n’ingamiye byo kuryaho umunyenga ariko urishyura
    Abanyamakuru Ndiol Seck wo muri Senegal na Sylla Fatoumata wo muri Ivory Coast barimo barya umunyenga ku ngamiya
    Hano haba hari indogobe, ingamiya n’amafarashi byo kuryaho umunyenga no kwifotorezaho, iyo ushaka no kwifotoreza kuri pyramide ba nyir’ayo matungo babigufashamo

    Nyuma yo gusura izi pyramides, Amr Atef yagiye no kutwereka icyo bita Great Sphinx, kimwe mu bibumbano binini kandi bya kera mu mateka y’Isi.

    Iki kibumbano gifite igihimba cy’umuntu n’umutwe w’intare. Abazobereye mu mateka ya Misiri bakaba bahuriza ku kuvuga ko ari icya Farawo Khephren wayoboye Misiri kuva 2558–2532 BC.

    Ikibumbano kizwi nka Sphinx bivugwa ko ari icya Farawo Khephren, kimaze imyaka isaga ibihumbi 4

    Amateka menshi ya Misiri yo mu bihe bya kera abitse mu Ngoro Ndangamateka ya Misiri iri i Cairo rwagati mu mujyi.

    Etaje ya kabiri y’iyo ngoro ndangamateka ngo ni yo ihenze cyane ku Isi, dore ko byinshi mu bintu birimo bikoze muri zahabu, nk’uko bitangazwa n’inzobere mu mateka ya Misiri, Amr Atef.

    Canal de Suez

    Ndibuka ko mu mashuri yisumbuye nize ibya Canal de Suez cyangwa Suez Canal, inzira y’amazi y’inkorano yacukuwe mu bunigo (isthme) bwa Suez mu gihe cy’imyaka 10 kuva mu 1959-1969, ihuza Inyanja Itukura n’Inyanja ya Mediteranée.

    Ubwo twasuraga iyi canal nari ntaramenya ko ubu zisigaye ari canals ebyiri zibangikanye. Mu gihe cy’umwaka umwe kuva mu mwaka wa 2014, Abanyamisiri bubatse canal nshya (New Suez Canal) ishamikiye ku isanzwe, hagamijwe kongera ubwinshi bw’ibintu binyuzwa muri aya mazi ya Misiri mu gihe kimwe, dore ko bitewe n’ukuntu canal ya mbere yari nto amato manini abiri atashoboraga kunyuramo ajya mu byerekezo bitandukanye.

    Ubuyobozi bw’Ikigo gishinzwe Canal ya Suez (Suez Canal Authority) butangaza ko iyi canal ya kabiri yatumye igihe cyo gutegereza ku mato ashaka kuva mu Nyanja Itukura ajya mu Nyanja ya Mediteranée cyangwa ava muri Mediteranée ajya mu Nyanja Itukura, cyavuye ku masaha 11 kigera ku masaha 3.

    Aha ni muri Suez Canal, badutemberezaga mu bwato bwakoreshejwe mu ntambara Misiri yacakiranyemo na Isiraheli mu mwaka wa 1973
    Abanyamahanga twari abanyamakuru 19 bo mu bihugu 19 bitandukanye bya Afurika
    Canal nshya yatumye ubu amata ava cyangwa ajya Mer Mediteranee – Mer Rouge abasha kubisikana, dore na canal ya mbere yaguwe

    Canal yubatswe kera ari na yo ndende ifite uburebure bwa kilometero 193, mu gihe iyubatswe ejo bundi aha mu gihe cy’umwaka umwe yo ifite uburebure bwa kilometero 72. Ubugari bwo izi canals zirabunganya kuko buri imwe ifite metero 400. Ni na ko bimeze ku bujyakuzimu: metero 24.

    Iyi nzira y’amazi ni imwe mu zikoreshwa cyane ku Isi. Ubuyobozi bwa Suez Canal Authority buvuga ko izi canals zombi zifite abakozi ibihumbi 25, bose akaba ari Abanyamisiri. Iyi canal ya kabiri yubatswe n’amasosiyete y’Abanyamisiri gusa.

    Tahya Rwanda, Tahya Misr

    Tanga igitekerezo