Itegeko rigenga imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe, impano n’izungura

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Mu rwego rwo guhaza ibyifuzo by’abasomyi b’Izubarirashe.rw twiyemeje kujya tubagezaho amakuru ajyanye n’amategeko, kugira ngo umunyarwanda atazajya asobanukirwa itegeko ari uko rimugonze.

Turahera ku Itegeko N°180/03 ryo ku wa 26 Nyakanga “rigenga imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe, impano n’izungura” ryasohotse mu Igazeti ya Leta kuwa 1 Kanama 2016.

Ni “Itegeko rigenga imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe, impano zitanzwe cyangwa zakiriwe mu rwego rw’umuryango n’izungura.”

Muri iri tegeko, amagambo akurikira asobanurwa ku buryo bukurikira:

• 1° abazungura bazigamirwa: uwapfakaye n’abana bemewe n’amategeko;

• 2° ibizungurwa bizigamirwa: umutungo umuntu atemerewe gutanga cyangwa kuraga kuko uba ugenewe abazungura bazigamirwa;

• 3° inshumbushanyo: agaciro k’ibigomba gutangwa n’umuzungura wegukana umugabane ufite agaciro gasumba agakwiranye n’ibintu yakagombye kugiraho uburenganzira mu gihe cy’izungura;

• 4° ubuhemu: igikorwa icyo aricyo cyose gikozwe ku bushake n’uwahawe, cyagira ingaruka mbi kuwahaye umuntu, nko kumwica cyangwa kugerageza kumwica, kumugambanira, kumwima ubufasha igihe bigaragara ko abukeneye bidasubirwaho, gutanga ubuhamya bw’ibinyoma byamuviramo igihano gikomeye;

• 5° umutungo: ibintu byose umuntu atunze, ari ibifatika n’ibidafatika, imyenda, hamwe n’uburenganzira n’inshingano abifiteho;

• 6° umutungo uzungurwa: umutungo wose usizwe n’uwapfuye kandi wemerewe kuzungurwa.

Imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe ivugwa muri iri tegeko “ni uburyo buteganywa n’iri tegeko abashyingiranywe bumvikanaho mu gucunga umutungo wabo” hanyuma ubwoko ubwoko bw’imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe bukaba ari ubu butatu bukurikira: ivangamutungo rusange; ivangamutungo w’umuhahano n’ivangamutungo risesuye.

Icyiciro cya mbere: Ivangamutungo rusange

Iri tegeko rivuga ko ivangamutungo rusange ari “amasezerano abashyingiranywe bagirana bakumvikana gushyira hamwe umutungo wabo wose.”

Gucunga umutungo bijyana n’ububasha bwo kuwukoresha uko bikwiye, kuwikenuza, kuwutanga no kuwugurisha haseguriwe ibyo amategeko ateganya. Abashyingiranywe bahisemo ivangamutungo rusange bacungira hamwe umutungo wabo, kandi bakagira ububasha bungana bwo kuwukurikirana no kuwuhagararira. Umutungo wose wanditse kuri umwe mu bashyingiranywe ubarirwa mu mutungo w’abashyingiranywe mu buryo bw’ivangamutungo rusange.

Ingingo ya 7 y’iri tegeko itanga ibisobanura ku iyishyurwa ry’imyenda, aho ivuga ko “abashyingiranywe bafatanya kwishyura imyenda yafashwe mbere na nyuma yo gushyingirwa.”

Iseswa ry’uburyo bw’ivangamutungo rusange n’inkurikizi zaryo

Iyo uburyo bw’ivangamutungo rusange busheshwe ku mpamvu z’ubutane cyangwa guhindura uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo, abari barashyingiranywe kuvanga umutungo bagabana ku buryo bungana cyangwa mu bundi buryo bumvikanye imitungo n’imyenda. Icyakora, urukiko rushobora gutegeka ko agaciro k’ibyangijwe n’umwe mu bashyingiranywe gakurwa mu mugabane we.

Iyo ubwo buryo busheshwe kubera urupfu rw’umwe mu bari barashyingiranywe, umutungo wegukanwa n’uwapfakaye kugeza igihe izungura rikorewe.

Iyo iseswa ry’ivangamutungo ritewe n’impamvu zivugwa mu gika cya mbere cy’iyi ngingo, ibikoresho bidashobora gusangirwa n’ibikoreshwa mu kazi k’umwe mu bashyingiranywe bishyirwa mbere na mbere mu mugabane w’usanzwe abikoresha.

Ababerewemo umwenda bafite uburenganzira bwo gusaba kwishyurwa imyenda yafashwe n’abashyingiranywe mbere yo gusesa uburyo bw’ivangamutungo rusange.

Iyo uburyo bw’ivangamutungo rusange busheshwe hari ababerewemo umwenda batashoboye kumenya iby’iryo hinduka ngo babashe gusaba ko bishyurwa mbere, bashobora guhitamo gukurikirana umwe cyangwa undi cyangwa bose mu bari baravanze umutungo ku mwenda wose.

Icyiciro cya 2: Ivangamutungo w’umuhahano

Igisobanuro cy’ivangamutungo w’umuhahano “ni amasezerano abashyingiranywe bagirana bakumvikana gushyira hamwe umutungo bazahaha bari kumwe kuva ku munsi w’ishyingirwa, kimwe n’ibyo bungutse mu mibanire yabo, bakorera hamwe cyangwa buri wese ku giti cye, byaba impano cyangwa ibizungurwa.”

Igihe cyo gukora amasezerano yo gushyingirwa, hashingiwe ku byo abashyingiranwa ubwabo bumvikanyeho, hakorwa ibaruramutungo ryerekana umutungo bwite wa buri wese kimwe n’umutungo buri wese ageneye iremezo ry’urugo iyo uhari. Inyandiko y’imenyekanishamutungo ishyirwaho umukono n’abagiye gushyingirwa ndetse n’Umwanditsi w’Irangamimerere. Ikintu cyose kitabaruwe nk’umutungo w’iremezo ry’urugo kiba ari icya nyiracyo.

Imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe mu buryo bw’ivangamutungo w’umuhahano

Iri tegeko, mu ngingo yaryo ya 11, risobanura ko “abashyingiranywe bavanze umutungo w’umuhahano bawucunga mu buryo bumvikanyeho bombi, bafite kandi uburenganzira bungana bwo gukurikirana no guhagararira uwo mutungo basangiye. Buri wese afite ububasha bwo gukoresha, kwikenuza, gutanga no kugurisha umutungo yigengaho. Inyungu n’ibindi byose byabyawe n’umutungo buri wese yigengaho bishyirwa muri uwo mutungo we.”

Iyishyurwa ry’imyenda yafashwe n’umwe mu bashyingiranywe

Inguzanyo n’imyenda byafashwe n’umwe mu bashyingiranywe mu buryo bw’ivangamutungo w’umuhahano hagamije gukemura ibibazo by’urugo, byishyurwa n’umutungo rusange. Iyo umutungo rusange udahagije kugira ngo wishyure uwo mwenda wose, ibisigaye byishyurwa n’umutungo wa buri wese mu bashyingiranywe ku buryo bungana. Inguzanyo n’imyenda byafashwe mu nyungu z’umuntu ku giti cye byishyurwa na nyir’ukubifata ku mutungo we bwite. Icyakora, iyo mu gihe cyo kuwufata habayeho ubufatanye, uwo mwenda wishyurwa ku mutungo rusange. Ihazabu n’imyenda ishingiye ku buryozwe bw’icyaha kirebana n’umutungo bwite wa buri wese ni gatozi, kandi bikishyurwa n’umutungo bwite w’uwo bireba.

Iseswa ry’ivangamutungo w’umuhahano n’inkurikizi zaryo

Iyo ivangamutungo w’umuhahano risheshwe ku mpamvu z’ubutane cyangwa guhindura uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo, umutungo w’umuhahano ugabanywa abashyingiranywe mu buryo bungana hakurikijwe ibiteganywa mu ivangamutungo rusange, naho umutungo bwite wa buri wese akawugumana.

Iyo ivangamutungo w’umuhahano risheshwe ku mpamvu z’urupfu rw’umwe mu bashyingiranywe, umutungo usangiwe wegukanwa n’uwapfakaye naho umutungo uwapfuye yari yihariye ugacungwa n’uwapfakaye kugeza igihe izungura rikorewe. Iyo iseswa ritewe n’impamvu zivugwa mu gika cya mbere cy’iyi ngingo, amategeko agenga igabana ry’umutungo mu gihe cy’ivangamutungo rusange niyo akurikizwa ku mutungo wari usangiwe.

Ivanguramutungo risesuye

Ivanguramutungo risesuye ni amasezerano abashyingiranywe bagirana bakumvikana gufatanya gutunga urugo rwabo hakurikijwe ubushobozi bwa buri wese, kandi buri wese akagumana uburenganzira bwo gucunga, kwikenuza, gutanga no kugurisha umutungo we bwite.

Iyo umwe mu bashyingiranywe mu buryo bw’ivanguramutungo risesuye ahaye uwo bashyingiranywe ububasha bwo kumucungira umutungo, amategeko rusange agenga amasezerano yo guhagararirwa ni yo akurikizwa.

Buri wese mu bashyingiranywe mu buryo bw’ivanguramutungo risesuye afite inshingano zo kwishyura ubwe umwenda yafashe mbere cyangwa nyuma y’isezerano ryo gushyingirwa, keretse iyo uwo mwenda yawufashe ku nyungu z’urugo. Umwenda bahuriyeho bawishyura bombi ku mutungo wa buri wese kandi mu buryo bumvikanyeho bajya kuwaka.

Iseswa ry’ivanguramutungo risesuye n’inkurikizi zaryo

Iyo ivanguramutungo risesuye risheshwe ku mpamvu z’ubutane cyangwa guhindura uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe, buri wese mu bashyingiranywe agumana umutungo we bwite. Iyo iryo seswa ritewe n’impamvu y’urupfu rw’umwe mu bari barashyingiranywe, umutungo w’uwapfuye uzungurwa n’abazungura be mu buryo buteganywa n’iri tegeko.

Ingingo zihuriweho mu micungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe

Ingingo ya 18: Uburenganzira n’inshingano z’abashyingiranywe bikomoka ku gushyingirwa

Hatitawe ku buryo bw’imicungire y’umutungo bahisemo, abashyingiranywe bagomba kubahiriza uburenganzira n’inshingano byabo bikomoka ku gushyingirwa.

Ingingo ya 19: Gusobanurira abagiye gushyingirwa uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe

Umwanditsi w’Irangamimerere ategura kandi agaha inyigisho irambuye abagomba gushyingirwa, akabasobanurira imiterere ya buri buryo bw’imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe agamije kubafasha guhitamo ububanogeye, nibura iminsi irindwi (7) mbere y’umuhango nyir’izina w’ishyingira.

Ingingo ya 20: Iyandikwa ry’uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe

Ku munsi w’ishyingirwa, uburyo bwo gucunga umutungo abashyingiranywe bahisemo bwandikwa mu gitabo cy’inyandiko z’abashyingiranywe ndetse no mu nyandiko y’ishyingirwa.

Uburyo abashyingiranywe bahisemo gucunga umutungo wabo bugomba kwandikwa mu isezerano ry’ugushyingirwa, rikorerwa imbere y’Umwanditsi w’Irangamimerere, ba nyir’ubwite bahibereye kandi babyemeranyijweho. Uburyo bwo gucunga umutungo butangira gukurikizwa bakimara gushyingirwa.

Ingingo ya 21: Guhitamo uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe ku muntu wahawe umujyanama cyangwa umwishingizi

Umuntu wahawe umujyanama kubera gutagaguza umutungo we cyangwa umuntu wahawe umwishingizi, ahitamo uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo abifashijwemo n’ushinz we kumugira inama cyangwa umwishingizi we.

Ingingo ya 22: Guhindura uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe

Uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe bushobora guhinduka bisabwe n’umwe mu bashyingiranywe cyangwa bombi. Bagomba kugaragaza ko iryo hinduka risabwe ku nyungu z’urugo cyangwa impinduka zikomeye zabayeho mu mibereho yabo cyangwa mu mibereho y’umwe muri bo.

Ikirego gitangwa mu buryo bw’ikirego cyihutirwa mu rukiko rubifitiye ububasha rukorera mu ifasi y’aho abashyingiranywe baba. Iyo urukiko rwanze ku buryo budasubirwaho icyo cyifuzo, abashyingiranywe ntibashobora kongera kubisaba hadashize umwaka umwe (1) kandi bishingiye gusa ku ngingo nshya.

Ingingo ya 23: Kwandikwa kw’ihinduka ry’uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe Mu gihe cy’ukwezi kumwe (1) uhereye igihe icyemezo cyo guhindura uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe kitagishoboye kujuririrwa, bisabwe n’uwatanze ikirego, icyemezo cy’urukiko kirebana n’iryo hinduka gishyikirizwa umwanditsi w’irangamimerere ukorera mu ifasi y’aho imihango yo gushyingirwa yabereye kugira ngo byandikwe mu nyandiko y’ishyingirwa.

Ababerewemo umwenda bashobora gusaba Urukiko mu buryo bw’ikirego ko ibyahinduwe mu masezerano yo gushyingirwa bitabagiraho ingaruka iyo babona byarabangirije. Icyo kirego gisaza mu gihe cy’umwaka umwe (1) ubarwa uhereye igihe bamenyesherejwe izo mpinduka.

Ingingo ya 24: Ukwamburwa uburenganzira bwo gucunga umutungo

Hatitawe ku buryo bw’imicungire y’umutungo, iyo umwe mu bashyingiranywe abangamiye inyungu z’urugo, kwaba kutita ku mutungo w’umuryango ndetse n’uwe bwite, cyangwa kuwupfusha ubusa, ashobora kwamburwa ububasha bwo kuwucunga, kuwikenuza, kuwutanga no kuwugurisha, bisabwe n’uwo bashyingiranywe cyangwa undi wese waba abifitemo inyungu.

Ikirego gitangwa mu buryo bw’ikirego cyihutirwa mu rukiko rubifitiye ububasha rukorera mu ifasi yaho abashyingiranywe baba.

Uretse igihe bibaye ngombwa ko urukiko rushyiraho ucunga umutungo, umucamanza aha umwe mu bashyingiranywe wabisabye, uburenganzira bwo gucunga umutungo bwite w’uwabwambuwe, maze agafata ibyabyawe n’uwo mutungo mu gukemura ibibazo by’urugo, ibisigaye akabizigama.

Uwambuwe ubwo bubasha ashobora gusaba urukiko gusubirana ububasha bwo gucunga umutungo we iyo agaragaje ko impamvu zari zateye umucamanza kubumwambura zitakiriho.

Iyo umwe mu bashyingiranywe wari warahawe uburenganzira bwo gucunga umutungo mu buryo buvugwa mu gika cya mbere cy’iyi ngingo apfuye, ubifitemo inyungu wese asaba urukiko rubifitiye ububasha, mu buryo bw’ikirego gitanzwe n’umuburanyi umwe, kugena undi muntu wo gucunga umutungo w’uw’ari warambuwe ububasha.

Ingingo ya 25: Impamvu z’iseswa ry’uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe

Uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe buseswa ku mpamvu zikurikira : 1° gutana kw’abashyingiranywe; 2° guhindura uburyo bw’icunga-mutungo; 3° urupfu rw’umwe mu bashyingiranywe.

Ingingo ya 26: Amategeko agenga imicungire y’umutungo w’abanyamahanga bashyingiriwe mu Rwanda, umunyarwanda n’umunyamahanga bashyingiriwe mu Rwanda cyangwa mu mahanga cyangwa Abanyarwanda bashyingiriwe mu mahanga

Uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe b’abanyamahanga baba bahuje ubwenegihugu cyangwa batabuhuje bashyingiriwe mu Rwanda bugengwa n’itegeko ry’Igihugu cy’umwe mu bashyingiranywe bihitiyemo cyangwa n’itegeko ry’Igihugu cy’u Rwanda.

Iyo ari umunyarwanda ushyingiranywe n’umunyamahanga, baba bashyingiranywe mu Rwanda cyangwa mu mahanga, uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo bugengwa n’itegeko ry’Igihugu cy’u Rwanda cyangwa itegeko ry’Igihugu cy’uwo munyamahanga, cyangwa iry’Igihugu amasezerano yabereyemo.

Iyo ishyingirwa ritabereye imbere y’uhagarariye u Rwanda mu mahanga, abashyingiranwa bahitamo ko uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo bugengwa n’itegeko ry’u Rwanda cyangwa iry’igihugu amasezerano yabereyemo.

Ubutaha tuzabagezaho ibijyanye n’impano zitanzwe mu rwego rw’umuryango n’ibindi biteganywa n’iri tegeko byerekeye izungura.

Niba hari icyo wifuza gusobanuza kijyanye n’ametegeko, twandikire kuri izubarirashe@gmail.com cyangwa kuri izubaletters@gmail.com

Indi nkuru wasoma: Mu Rwanda, ni ryari umuntu yamburwa uburenganzira afite mu gihugu?

Mu Rwanda, ni ryari umuntu yamburwa uburenganzira afite mu gihugu?

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